The concept of free will and predestination (Al-Qadr) contradict each other, and we can see the emphasis on the latter in many quranic verses and authentic narrations.

The narrations included in the list below prove that Allah creates people who are evil/disobedient by nature then punishes them for something they cannot control, that is their disbelief and sins. The sins that we (and the prophets too) commit were all predetermined by Allah himself before we were even created, yet we're punished for them despite us having no choice at all.

An Argument Between Adam And Moses

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Moses argued with Adam and said to him: "You are the one who got mankind out of Paradise because of your sin, and thus made them miserable." Adam replied: "O Moses! You are the one whom Allah had selected for His Message and for His direct talk. Yet you blame me for a thing which Allah had ordained for me before He even created me?" Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) further said: "So Adam overcame Moses by this argument."

(https://sunnah.com/bukhari:6614https://sunnah.com/bukhari:4738https://sunnah.com/muslim:2652dhttps://sunnah.com/bukhari:4736https://sunnah.com/muslim:2652bhttps://sunnah.com/muslim:2652chttps://sunnah.com/abudawud:4701https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:80https://sunnah.com/mishkat:81)

For context, this happened during the 'Isra event when Muhammad went to the heavens to debate Allah and won, but that's another story.

These narrations clearly imply the original sin was not Adam's fault, because he had no choice in this matter as his actions were all predetermined to happen by Allah before Adam or Satan were even created. And I find it very interesting how Adam blamed this on Allah's predestination rather than on Satan's luring.

If Adam had free will, we would be able to blame him for his actions in the garden yet we can't, because according to him he was preordained by Allah to do it before his creation. So who's really responsible for the actions that caused the fall of man from paradise?

Allah Predetermines The Fate Of Those Who Aren't Born Yet

Aisha, the mother of believers, narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was called to the funeral of a child from among the Ansar. She said: "O Messenger of Allah, glad tidings for him! He is one of the little birds of Paradise, who never did evil or reached the age of doing evil (i.e, the age of accountability)." He (ﷺ) said: "It may not be so, Aisha! For Allah created people for Paradise, He created them for it when they were still in their father's loins, And He has created people for Hell, He created them for it when they were still in their fathers' loins."

(https://sunnah.com/muslim:2662chttps://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:82https://sunnah.com/abudawud:4713https://sunnah.com/nasai:1947https://sunnah.com/muslim:2662b)

This is pretty self explanatory. In response to Aisha saying that a prepubescent child (meaning they cannot sin yet) who died is going to heaven, Muhammad claims she can be wrong as Allah already determines the destination of people before they're even born.

The explanation for this hadith also talks about how this proves predetermination and 'the preserved tablet' (Sharh Al-Hadith)

Deeds Are Already Preordained Before Creation

Suraqah bin Ju'shum said: "O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), is one's deed in that which has already dried of the Pen (after recording them) and what has passed of the Divine Decree (Al-Qadr), or is it in the future?" He (ﷺ) said: "No, it is in that which what has already dried of the Pen and what has passed of the Divine Decree, and each person is facilitated for what they have been created."

(https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:91https://sunnah.com/muslim:2648ahttps://sunnah.com/muslim:2648b)

Muhammad singlehandedly disproved the existence of free will with this one response. He states the deeds people do are what has already been written for them in their destinies (Divine Decree), and the actions they will do in the future are already decided in their destinies.

Meaning if someone were to leave Islam, it's because this outcome was already decided for him in his destiny which cannot be changed. It's not truly him who is responsible for his apostasy... but the one who is writing his unchangeable destiny.

Fate Is Preordained When One Is In The Womb

Abdullah bin Mas'ud reported: "Evil one is he who is evil in the womb of his mother and the good one is he who takes a lesson from the (fate of) others." The narrator came to a person from amongst the Companions of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) who was called Hudhaifa bin Usaid Ghifari and said: "How can a person be an evil one without committing an evil deed?" Thereupon the person said to him: You are surprised at this, whereas I have heard The Prophet (ﷺ) as saying:

"When the drop of semen remains in the womb for forty or forty five nights, Allah sends an angel into the womb and he says: 'My Lord, will he be good or evil?' And both these things would be written. Then the angel says: 'My Lord, would he be male or female?' And both these things are written. And whether he will be a wretched one or a blessed one (in the Hereafter), and his deeds and actions, his death, his livelihood; these are also recorded. Then his document of destiny is rolled and there is no addition to nor subtraction from it, then the soul is breathed into his body. So a man may do deeds characteristic of the people of the Hellfire, so much so that there is only the distance of a cubit between him and it, and then what has been written (by the angel) surpasses, and so he starts doing deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise and enters Paradise. Similarly, a person may do deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise, so much so that there is only the distance of a cubit between him and it, and then what has been written (by the angel) surpasses, and he starts doing deeds of the people of the Hellfire and enters the Hellfire."

(https://sunnah.com/muslim:2645ahttps://sunnah.com/bukhari:7454https://sunnah.com/bukhari:3333https://sunnah.com/bukhari:3332https://sunnah.com/bukhari:6595https://sunnah.com/muslim:2646https://sunnah.com/muslim:2644https://sunnah.com/muslim:2645chttps://sunnah.com/abudawud:4708https://sunnah.com/riyadussalihin:396)

The actions, characteristics, date of death, and fate in the hereafter of everyone is already predetermined while they're still in their mother's womb. There is no way one has free will if everything they will ever do in life is already written down for them by their creator in a scroll that cannot be changed.

And I also find it weird how Allah is constantly mad at disbelievers in the quran... when he himself has ordained for them to disbelieve before they were even born.

People Do The Deeds They Were Created For

A man said: "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! Can the people of Paradise be known (differentiated) from the people of the Fire?" The Prophet (ﷺ) replied: "Yes." The man said: "Why do people (try to) do (good) deeds?" The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Everyone will do the deeds for which they have been created to do or they will do those deeds which will be made easy for them to do." (i.e. everybody will find easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created for)

While we were sitting with The Prophet (ﷺ) who had a stick with which he was scraping the earth, he lowered his head and said: "There is none of you but has his place assigned either in the Fire or in Paradise." Thereupon a man from the people said: "Shall we not depend upon this, O Allah's Apostle?" The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "No, but carry on and do your deeds, for everybody finds it easy to do such deeds (as will lead him to his place)."

Imran said: "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! Why should a doer (people) try to do good deeds?" The Prophet (ﷺ) replied: "Everybody will find easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created."

(https://sunnah.com/bukhari:6596https://sunnah.com/bukhari:6605https://sunnah.com/bukhari:7551https://sunnah.com/bukhari:7552https://sunnah.com/bukhari:4949https://sunnah.com/muslim:2649ahttps://sunnah.com/muslim:2648a)

According to these narrations, people whom Allah has created SPECIFICALLY for paradise will find it easier to do good deeds, and likewise people whom Allah has created SPECIFICALLY for hell will find it easier to sin.

If Allah wanted to stay up to his name "The Just" العدل, how about actually creating people equally? Instead of assigning each person for heaven or hell, which leads them to automatically start doing deeds fit for them without their own will?

Abu Huraira's Problem

Abu Huraira said: "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! I am a young man and I am afraid that I may commit illegal sexual intercourse and I cannot afford to marry." He (ﷺ) kept silent, and then he repeated the question once again, but he (ﷺ) kept silent. He said the same thing for the third time and he (ﷺ) remained silent. Then he repeated the question for the fourth time, and only then The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Abu Huraira, the pen has written all it has to write about your destiny. So have yourself made an eunuch on that account, or leave things as they are.”

(https://sunnah.com/bukhari:5076https://sunnah.com/nasai:3215https://sunnah.com/mishkat:88)

Justification For Murdering A Child (Moses & Al-Khidr)

For context, the following verses come from a story in Surat Al-Kahf (Verses 18:60-82) about Moses meeting a wise man named Al-Khidr, who has knowledge of the future and he takes Moses on a lesson. The whole story is extremely flawed for multiple reasons and this video by Apostate Aladdin explains why pretty well. But for now, I will focus on a certain part of the story, and that's when Al-Khidr murders a little kid on the basis that the child was destined to become a disbeliever when he grows up:

So they proceeded until they came across a boy, and the man (Al-Khidr) killed him. Moses protested: "Have you killed an innocent soul, who killed no one?! You have certainly done a horrible thing!" (18:74)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said : Al-Khidr saw a young boy playing with his friends. He took him by his head and uprooted it. Moses then said: "Hast thou slain an innocent person who had slain none?!"

(https://sunnah.com/bukhari:122https://sunnah.com/abudawud:4707)

He answered: "Did I not tell you that you cannot have patience with me?" (18:75)

Moses replied: "If I ever question you about anything after this, then do not keep me in your company, for by then I would have given you enough of an excuse." (18:76)

"And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared that he would pressure them into defiance and disbelief. So we hoped that their Lord would give them another, more virtuous and caring in his place." (18:80-81)

"This is the explanation of what you could not bear patiently." (18:82)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "The boy that Al-Khidr killed was destined to be a disbeliever the day he was created. Had he lived, he would have moved his parents to rebellion and disbelief."

(https://sunnah.com/muslim:2662ahttps://sunnah.com/tirmidhi:3150https://sunnah.com/abudawud:4705https://sunnah.com/abudawud:4706)

The justification for murdering a little kid in front of his playmates... is because he would grow up to be a disbeliever and move his parents into disbelief. According to Muhammad, this kid was DESTINED to become a disbeliever, meaning he had no choice in this matter at all. He couldn't control his beliefs because it was in his destiny that he would be a disbeliever.

So instead of giving him actual free will and letting him pick his beliefs for himself, he is instead murdered for something he cannot control or change; something Allah has predetermined for him before he was even born.

Belief Happens Only By Allah's Will

Surely this ˹Quran˺ is only a reminder to the whole world to whoever of you wills to take the Straight Path. But you cannot will ˹to do so˺, except by the Will of Allah, the Lord of all worlds. (81:27-29)

Whoever Allah wills to guide, He opens their heart to Islam. (6:125)

Surely this is a reminder. So let whoever wills take the ˹Right˺ Path to their Lord. But you cannot will ˹to do so˺ unless Allah wills. Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. He admits whoever He wills into His mercy. (76:29-31)

You surely cannot guide whoever you like ˹O Prophet˺, but it is Allah Who guides whoever He wills, and He knows best who are ˹fit to be˺ guided. (28:56)

Every muslim lurker on this sub should read that last verse. Stop coming here trying to convert us, just read what the quran says xD

Disbelief Happens Also By Allah's Will

Whoever He wills to leave astray, He makes their chest tight and constricted as if they were climbing up into the sky. This is how Allah dooms those who disbelieve. (6:125)

There are some of them who ˹pretend to˺ listen to your recitation ˹of the Quran˺, but We have cast veils over their hearts—leaving them unable to comprehend it—and deafness in their ears. Even if they were to see every sign, they still would not believe in them. (6:25)

And who does more wrong than those who, when reminded of their Lord’s revelations, turn away from them and forget what their own hands have done? We have certainly cast veils over their hearts—leaving them unable to comprehend this ˹Quran˺—and deafness in their ears. And if you ˹O Prophet˺ invite them to ˹true˺ guidance, they will never be ˹rightly˺ guided. (18:57)

Allah has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and their sight is covered. They will suffer a tremendous punishment. (2:7)

So Allah goes around "sealing the hearts" of the disbelievers in Quraysh then complains about them not believing in him... makes total sense.

I've seen apologists claim that Allah only seals the hearts of disbelievers if they're persistent in their disbelief, but why even do that in the first place? What if the disbeliever saw something that would've convinced them, but their heart was sealed so it didn't convince them? It wouldn't be the disbeliever's fault then, but Allah's.

Conclusion

Allah complains so much in the quran about disbelievers not worshipping him, calling them "the worst of creatures" (98:6) and many other childish insults, yet he's the main cause of their disbelief by destining them to become disbelievers before they were even created.

So according to these hadiths and verses, every ex-muslim disbelieves because Allah has destined for them to do so before they were even created. If you're reading this post right now, it's because Allah has preordained you to do so, not because you clicked on it by your own will.

Allah destines people to become disbelievers and to sin, then punishes them ETERNALLY for this despite them having no control over what they've been destined to do. Allah is blaming people for something he inflicted upon them, and torturing them for it as if they had a choice.

Thank you for reading, have a nice day (it has already been predetermined for you xd). Check out my other articles if you want to:


Credit: Taha