Islam apologist, Dr Al Zeiny writes:

Until fairly recently, it was thought that a baby's sex was determined by the mother's cells. Or at least, it was believed that the sex was determined by the male and female cells together. The Quran is the only ancient book that states that sex is determined by the (male) sperms.

"He has created both sexes, male and female from a drop of a (male) sperm which has been ejected." (The Qur'an, 53:45-46)

This claim is repeated by Dr. Zakir Naik in his book "The Quran and modern Science" (link). 

ANALYSIS

  • This claim has only been made very recently by Islam apologists for the first time.
  • Otherwise, not a single Muslim Quran interpreter of last 14 centuries came to this conclusion from this verse. 
  • There is nothing in this verse which is telling about the sex determination.
  • This verse is simply telling only one thing that the process of creation of both sexes starts with the sperm when it is ejected.

As compared to this deceptive conjecture of these modern Islam apologists, we have Muhammad himself, who is telling the Islamic concept of sex determination in the following Hadith (tradition). 

Sahih Muslim, Book of Menstruation:
... قَالَ ‏"‏ مَاءُ الرَّجُلِ أَبْيَضُ وَمَاءُ الْمَرْأَةِ أَصْفَرُ فَإِذَا اجْتَمَعَا فَعَلاَ مَنِيُّ الرَّجُلِ مَنِيَّ الْمَرْأَةِ أَذْكَرَا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَإِذَا عَلاَ مَنِيُّ الْمَرْأَةِ مَنِيَّ الرَّجُلِ آنَثَا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ‏"‏ 
.... The reproductive substance of man is white and that of woman yellow, and when they have sexual intercourse and the male's substance prevails upon the female's substance, it is the male child that is created by Allah's Decree, and when the substance of the female prevails upon the substance contributed by the male, a female child is formed by the Decree of Allah. The Jew said: What you have said is true; verily you are an Apostle. He then returned and went away. 

Therefore, Muhammad has himself denied the Islam apologists here about the process of sex determination of the fetus. 

Muhammad made double Scientific Mistakes in this Hadith:

  • Firstly, reproductive substance of woman is not yellow. It is a wonder that Muslims still consider Muhammad to be a true messenger of God even after this huge scientific blunder. 
  • Secondly, Muhammad is claiming that sex of the child is determined if father's or mother's substance prevails, which is again wrong according to science, while it is the father's chromosome which determines the sex of the fetus. 

But as we know that Muhammad was doing this Drama of revelation at his own, and making all these stories and claims at his own, therefore, many "human mistakes & contradictions" occurred in these stories. Let us look at the following Hadith. 

Sahih Muslim, Book of Destiny:
... Allah's Messenger said: When forty-two nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives him shape. Then he creates his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also

Therefore, Muhammad not only contradicted those modern Islam apologists, but in this Hadith, Muhammad contradicted himself too by giving a different reason regarding determination of the sex of the foetus (i.e. Allah decided it Himself and sex determination has nothing to do with male sperm). 

PS:

We posted a Hadith above where Muhammad claimed that reproductive substance of woman is yellow. This is a fatal scientific mistake.

Sahih Muslim, Book of Menstruation:
... قَالَ ‏"‏ مَاءُ الرَّجُلِ أَبْيَضُ وَمَاءُ الْمَرْأَةِ أَصْفَرُ فَإِذَا اجْتَمَعَا فَعَلاَ مَنِيُّ الرَّجُلِ مَنِيَّ الْمَرْأَةِ أَذْكَرَا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَإِذَا عَلاَ مَنِيُّ الْمَرْأَةِ مَنِيَّ الرَّجُلِ آنَثَا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ‏"‏ 
....  He (the Holy Prophet) said: The reproductive substance of man (Arabic: مَاءُ الرَّجُلِ) is white and that of woman (Arabic: مَاءُ الْمَرْأَةِ) yellow, and when they have sexual intercourse and the male's substance (chromosomes and genes) prevails upon the female's substance (chromosomes and genes), it is the male child that is created by Allah's Decree, and when the substance of the female prevails upon the substance contributed by the male, a female child is formed by the Decree of Allah. The Jew said: What you have said is true; verily you are an Apostle. 

But modern Islam apologists are now trying to use a deception, in order to change the meaning of "female substance" by claiming that it does not refer to female discharge during sex (which is not yellow, but white), but it refers to the central part of the female ovum, which is yellow (like egg yolk of a hens is yellow):

However, such an interpretation is impossible, since in another Hadith:

  • Firstly, Muhammad claimed that it was quite visible (and the genetic material inside the ovum isn’t)
  • Secondly, Muhammad claimed that man's substance is "thicker", while of woman's is "thinner", which is not possible if we assume the yellow part of ovum (egg), which is as thick as sperm (actually it is thicker than male sperm). 
  • In both Hadiths, word used for man's substance is مَاءَ الرَّجُلِ , and word used for woman's substance is مَاءَ الْمَرْأَةِ. Therefore, it is not possible for Islam apologists to caste more doubts in this scientific error of Muhammad. 

Sahih Muslim, The Book of Menstruation:
أُمَّ سُلَيْمٍ حَدَّثَتْ أَنَّهَا، سَأَلَتْ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ تَرَى فِي مَنَامِهَا مَا يَرَى الرَّجُلُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِذَا رَأَتْ ذَلِكِ الْمَرْأَةُ فَلْتَغْتَسِلْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ أُمُّ سُلَيْمٍ وَاسْتَحْيَيْتُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَتْ وَهَلْ يَكُونُ هَذَا فَقَالَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ نَعَمْ فَمِنْ أَيْنَ يَكُونُ الشَّبَهُ إِنَّ مَاءَ الرَّجُلِ غَلِيظٌ أَبْيَضُ وَمَاءَ الْمَرْأَةِ رَقِيقٌ أَصْفَرُ فَمِنْ أَيِّهِمَا عَلاَ أَوْ سَبَقَ يَكُونُ مِنْهُ الشَّبَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏Anas b. Malik reported that Umm Sulaim narrated it that she asked the Messenger of Allah about a woman who sees in a dream what a man sees (sexual dream). The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon bi m) said:In case a woman sees that, she must take a bath. Umm Sulaim said: I was bashful on account of that and said: Does it happen? Upon this the Messenger of Allah  said: Yes (it does happen), otherwise how can (a child) resemble her? Man's discharge (Arabic: مَاءَ الرَّجُلِ) is thick and white and the discharge of woman (Arabic: مَاءَ الْمَرْأَةِ) is thin and yellow; so the resemblance comes from the one whose genes prevail or dominate

Also see:

Sunnan Ibn Majah, The Book of Purification:
It was narrated from Zainab, the daughter of Umm Salamah, that :Her mother Umm Salamah said: "Umm Sulaim came to the Prophet and asked him about a woman who sees in her dream something like a man sees. He said: 'Yes, if she sees water (discharge), let her take a bath.' I said: 'You have embarrassed the women. Do women experience wet dreams?' The Prophet said: 'May your hands be rubbed with dust, how else does her child resemble her?'"

Even women were able to tell that Muhammad made a wrong claim about their sexual discharge during the dream.

Moreover, do fluids released in a woman's orgasm determine the resemblance of children to parents, or is that genetic information carried by the egg and sperm and determined when they meet?

Answer is simple, as an orgasm does not have anything to do with the egg, which is what carries the genome of the woman. 

Actually, discharges of man and woman are even not needed anymore, and one sperm fertilizes one egg mechanically through syringe, but still babies resemble to the mother and father.