Muhammad and his companions had no means of livelihood in Medina, relying heavily on attacking non-believers to acquire spoils of war. They would plunder everything from the non-believers, taking women and young children as slaves for their entire lives, even though these innocent individuals had no involvement in the conflicts. Even the coming generations of slaves were automatically born as slaves due to the evil of "Slavery by Birth" in Islam.
However, Muhammad desired an even larger share of the war booty for himself and his close relatives, prompting him to utilize revelations for personal gain on multiple occasions.
Take the time to read and form your own judgment on whether these were truly divine revelations to Muhammad or if he was fabricating them for his personal interests.
al-Anfal: Muhammad's Attempt to Claim All War Booty for Himself, Leaving Nothing for the Companions
Muslims would engage in attacks on trade caravans to acquire war booty. Initially, these spoils were distributed equally among the participants. The raiding of trade caravans eventually led to the Battle of Badr in the 2nd year of Hijri.
In the Battle of Badr, the Muslims emerged victorious against the Meccans and obtained significant goods as war booty. However, this time Muhammad desired to keep the spoils for himself, denying the participants their rightful share. To justify this, he claimed a revelation of a new verse, 8:1, asserting that ALL spoils of war solely belonged to Allah and His Prophet (i.e., Muhammad), effectively excluding the companions from any share.
To further deny the companions their share, Muhammad argued that their participation in the war had no significant impact, as it was Allah who sent 1000 angels to fight and defeat the disbelievers. Consequently, Muhammad asserted that the entire spoils of the Battle of Badr belonged exclusively to Allah and His Messenger (practically only benefiting Muhammad).
Here is the verse where Muhammad claims his right over ALL the spoils of war:
يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْأَنفَالِ ۖ قُلِ ٱلْأَنفَالُ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ
They ask you (Mohammed) concerning the war booty; say, “Allah and the Messenger are the owners of the war booty.
Then, Muhammad informed the participants of the war that their role in the victory was not significant, emphasizing that it was the 1000 angels who fought and defeated the disbelievers. As a result, he declared that the war booty belonged exclusively to Allah and His messenger (with Muhammad claiming sole rights over all the spoils of war), while the participants (i.e., the Sahaba) had no share in it.
(Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): "Indeed, I am going to help you with a thousand of the Angels, following one another."
11. Allah is telling the events one by one which happened on the day of Badr, so that they (i.e. Muslims) would understand the significance of the word al-anfal (i.e. spoils of war). In the opening verse of this surah, the Muslims were told why they were thinking to be the owner of the spoils of war as their own hard work and efforts? No, but it was only a bonus, and the owner of bonus is Allah himself. The Muslims could see themselves how much share did their efforts has in that victory and what was the share of Allah in that victory (i.e. sending of 1000 angels to fight and defeat the Kuffar)
Verse 8:12 raises an intriguing point, as it suggests that despite dispatching 1000 angels to engage in combat, Allah deemed it insufficient and chose to personally intervene in the battle by instilling terror directly into the hearts of the disbelievers.
And recall when your Lord inspired the angels: 'I am certainly with you (i.e. the angels). So make firm the feet of those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. So strike at their necks and strike at every pore and tip.
Please reflect upon the following thought-provoking points:
- Why was it necessary for Allah to inspire and assure the angels that Allah was with them? It appears that Muhammad overlooked the fact that angels, as innocent beings in Islamic teachings, do not require reassurance from Allah like humans do.
- Moreover, if 1000 angels were not sufficient to fight and overcome the disbelievers (who were also only 1000 in number), why did Allah need to directly involve Himself in the war and instill terror directly into the hearts of the disbelievers?
Upon careful consideration, one may conclude that this revelation could not possibly originate from a divine and perfect Allah in the heavens. Rather, it seems to be a result of human errors, driven by the greed for war spoils.
Muhammad exploited the superstitions prevalent among his companions, who were products of the time of ignorance. Otherwise, how could his companions wholeheartedly believe in these fanciful tales that 1000 angels were actively fighting alongside them, and still they were not enough to defeat Kuffar, and therefore Allah also had to intervene directly.
Abu Zumail said that the hadith was narrated to him by Ibn `Abbas who said: While on that day a Muslim was chasing a disbeliever who was going ahead of him, he heard over him the swishing of the whip and the voice of the rider saying: Go ahead, Haizum! He glanced at the polytheist who had (now) fallen down on his back. When he looked at him (carefully he found that) there was a scar on his nose and his face was torn as if it had been lashed with a whip, and had turned green with its poison. An Ansari came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and related this (event) to him. He said: You have told the truth. This was the help from the third heaven (i.e. the angels who came from the third heaven were lashing the Kuffar with whip and kuffer were being killed due to the poison of whips).
The Prophet (ﷺ) said on the day (of the battle) of Badr, "This is Gabriel holding the head of his horse and equipped with arms for the battle.
But do you know that the Kuffar were still able to kill 14 Muslims in the Battle of Badr?
Muslims should ponder upon it:
- There were only 1000 Kuffar present there, while on the other side, there were 313 Muslims + 1000 Angels + Allah Himself casting terror in the hearts of Kuffar.
- How can you accept such an entity to be a God, who promised to cast TERROR in the heart of Kuffar, and then also sent 1000 angels to participate in it, but still 14 Muslims got killed in the battle?
- Earlier, Muhammad tried to put all the spoils of war in his pocket in the battle of Badr. He used verse 8:01 (Surah al-Anfal) for this purpose.
- But later he failed in doing it despite the help of revelation. It was due to the reason that on the day of Badr, Muhammad had already promised his companions that they would get such and such share from war booty for killing a Kafir, and such and such share for capturing a Kafir.
- Thus, Muhammad was compelled to give up his previous idea of taking the whole war booty of Badr for himself alone.
- But later he changed his tactics, and claimed 1/5th part of the war booty of the battle of Badr, in the name of Khums. He again used revelation for this purpose. This time it was verse 41 of the same Surah al-Anfal (Qruan 8:41).
Look at this Hadith, where Muhammad was telling his companions that they would get a such and such share in the war booty, before the start of the war:
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said on the day of Badr: He who kills a man will get such-and-such, and he who captivates a man will get such-and-such.
Consequently, a significant contradiction arose when Muhammad initially attempted to claim the entire war booty solely for himself, thereby depriving the companions of their rightful shares. However, this stance was later modified to claim one-fifth of the war booty. Muhammad justified this change by proclaiming the revelation of the following verse regarding Khums, found within the same Surah al-Anfal.
And know that anything you obtain of war booty - then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives and the orphans, the needy, and the [stranded] traveller.
In practice, the entirety of the one-fifth share of the war booty went into the possession of Muhammad. He retained a significant portion for himself, claiming it as the share of Allah and His Messenger. Another portion was allocated to his close relatives. Additionally, the portion intended for the needy, orphans, and travellers also ended up under Muhammad's control, as he had the authority to distribute it at his discretion.
Muhammad got a big share of the spoils of every war in the name of Khums, which he used for his personal enrichment. For example, he got at least 7 slaves in the single war booty of Khaybar, which he used to trade for a single beautiful woman Saffiyah. (Note: It may be that Muhammad got an even bigger share than 7 slaves in the war)
Anas said “A beautiful (captive) slave girl (i.e. Safiyyah) fell to Dihyah (a companion of Muhammad)”. The Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ) purchased her for seven slaves. He then gave her to Umm Sulaim for decorating her and preparing her for marriage.
Why did the relatives of Muhammad receive an additional share from the war booty, in the name of Khums, even if they were not needy?
And a very important question is, why the relatives of Muhammad got an extra share from the war booty?
For example, Ali raped a minor slave girl on the same night when she was made captive after the war and gave it the name of Khums.
I hated Ali as I had never hated anyone. ... The Prophet sent to us Ali, and among the female captives was a slave girl who was the finest of the female captives, and he apportioned the Khums (one-fifth of war booty given to the Prophet and his family). Ali divided the shares, and his head was dripping (after taking a ritual bath following sexual intercourse with the slave-girl). We said: "O Abu al-Hasan (i.e. Ali), what is this?!" Ali replied: "Did you not see the slave-girl who was among the female captives? I divided the shares and apportioned Khumus. Then she became part of the Khumus. Then she became part of the household of the Prophet, and then she became part of the house of Ali, and (thus) I had sexual intercourse with her." ...
Grading: Classed Sahih by al-Arna'ut
Islamic apologists have put forth the explanation that Muhammad's relatives received an additional portion of the spoils of war because they were forbidden from receiving Sadaqa (charity). However, it is important to note that charity is meant for the poor and needy, while Muhammad's relatives were neither impoverished nor in need. Obtaining a slave girl in the name of Khums and then raping her, contradicts the concept of being needy and destitute. Hence, the straightforward conclusion is that Muhammad sought to enrich himself and his family under the guise of Khums.
Al-Fay فيء : Muhammad finally succeeded in putting the entire war booty in his pocket
In Medina, Muhammad came with the Muslim army to attack the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir. But instead of fighting, they peacefully accepted the condition to be expelled from Medina.
Companions of Muhammad were again dreaming of a big share in War Booty, but Muhammad had another plan in his mind.
This time, Muhammad claimed the revelation of the following verses:
And from them (i.e. Banu Nadhir), the booty which Allah gave to His Noble Messenger – so you had not charged your horses or camels against them, but it is Allah Who gives whomever He wills within the control of His Noble Messengers; and Allah is Able to do all things. The booty which Allah gave to His Noble Messenger from the people of the townships (i.e. Banu Nadhir), is for Allah and His Noble Messenger, and for the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy and the travellers – so that it does not concentrate in the hands of those who are rich among you; and accept whatever the Noble Messenger gives you; and refrain from whatever he forbids you
This time, Muhammad did not merely take one-fifth of the spoils; instead, he claimed control over the entire war booty. With the journey that began with the verse of al-Anfaal (Quran 8:1) being completed by the verse of al-Fay (Quran 59:6-7), Muhammad successfully acquired authority over the entire spoils of war.
It is essential to note that even though there was no actual fighting, the companions participated in the campaign, deploying on their horses and on foot. Their actions played a significant role in Banu Nadhir accepting defeat and agreeing to their expulsion. However, the companions received no share from the war booty, as Muhammad deprived them of their rightful portion.
Islamic Apologists: Share of al-Fay was not given to the participants of the war, while Allah didn't want the "concentration" of money in a few hands
It is important to recognize that the claim that war booty was not distributed among the participants of the war, as it was not intended for them, is merely a deceptive explanation. This excuse, however, was not presented in the Quran or by Muhammad himself. Rather, it was later fabricated by subsequent Muslims to justify the withholding of the wealth by Muhammad.
It is important to highlight the following points:
- The Quran itself does not impose any condition of wealth concentration on Muhammad and his relatives by depriving them of the 1/5th share of Khums, even in cases where no fighting took place.
- Muhammad and his relatives continued to receive substantial shares from the spoils of war, including the wealth obtained through Khums and Al-Fay (the whole of the war booty).
An example of this is Muhammad granting his daughter, Fatima, a garden called Fadak, which had a value of 50,000 Dirhams. Later, during Umar's reign, Ali assumed control of Fadak. Ali's wealth was such that he could comfortably support his nine wives, several concubines, and 17 children.
These instances shed light on the deceptive notion of non-concentration of wealth in the context of Al-Fay.
Muhammad made money through RUQYAH (Spells of Quranic Verses)
Sahaba used Ruqyah to enrich themselves, but Muhammad also used the same excuse in order to take money out of Sahaba's pocket.
Narrated Abu Sa`id:
Some of the companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) went on a journey till they reached some of the 'Arab tribes (at night). They asked the latter to treat them as their guests but they refused. The chief of that tribe was then bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and they tried their best to cure him but in vain. Some of them said (to the others), "Nothing has benefited him, will you go to the people who resided here at night, it may be that some of them might possess something (as treatment)," They went to the group of the companions (of the Prophet (ﷺ) ) and said, "Our chief has been bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and we have tried everything but he has not benefited. Have you got anything (useful)?" One of them replied, "Yes, by Allah! I can recite a Ruqya, but as you have refused to accept us as your guests, I will not recite the Ruqya for you unless you fix for us some wages for it." They agrees to pay them a flock of sheep. One of them then went and recited (Surat-ul-Fatiha): 'All the praises are for the Lord of the Worlds' and puffed over the chief who became all right as if he was released from a chain, and got up and started walking, showing no signs of sickness. They paid them what they agreed to pay. Some of them (i.e. the companions) then suggested to divide their earnings among themselves, but the one who performed the recitation said, "Do not divide them till we go to the Prophet (ﷺ) and narrate the whole story to him, and wait for his order." So, they went to Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and narrated the story. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) asked, "How did you come to know that Suratul- Fatiha was recited as Ruqya?" Then he added, "You have done the right thing. Divide (what you have earned) and assign a share for me as well." The Prophet (ﷺ) smiled thereupon.
- The companions resorted to collecting money from ordinary individuals under the guise of Ruqya (healing practices).
- However, Muhammad devised a method to extract money from his companions, allocating a share for himself from those earnings.
- Even today, thousands of religious leaders exploit unsuspecting Muslims in the name of following the example of Muhammad, using practices like Ruqya and claiming to counter the effects of the Evil Eye.
And that 'smile' of Muhammad is disturbing. It reminds us of another 'smile' of Muhammad, when Sahla (a young woman) hesitated to breastfeed a male adult, despite Muhammad's instructions. Upon that, Muhammad smiled too.
' A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Sahla bint Suhail came to Allah's Apostle (may peace be eupon him) and said: Messengerof Allah, I see on the face of Abu Hudhaifa (signs of disgust) on entering of Salim (who is an ally) into (our house), whereupon Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) said: Suckle him. She said: How can I suckle him as he is a grown-up man? Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) smiled and said: I already know that he is a young man 'Amr has made this addition in his narration that he participated in the Battle of Badr and in the narration of Ibn 'Umar (the words are): Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) laughed.