Lunar Year:

  • The Islamic Calendar consists of 12 Lunar Months. 
  • And every month consists of one circle of the moon around planet earth.
  • The moon takes 29 to 30 days to complete one circle around the earth. 
  • Thus, Islamic Lunar Year consists of 355 days (in which the moon revolves around the earth 12 times)

Solar Year:

  • Solar year means one circle by planet earth around the sun. 
  • Earth takes 365 days to complete this one circle. 
  • A solar year has nothing to do with the system of 12 months, 4 weeks in a month, or 7 days in a week. This system of 12 months + 4 weeks + 7 days was created by the people who earlier followed the lunar year. Later, when they started following the solar year, they introduced this system into the solar year too for their convenience as they were used to it. 
  • Instead of 12 months, the solar year is mainly divided into 4 seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter, which repeat at the exact same intervals in the solar years. 

All the changes that take place on the planet earth basically belong to the position of the sun, and not to the position of the moon. 

Human life is also mainly affected by the position of the sun. All the crops and businesses and seasons are linked to the position of the sun. As compared to the sun, the position of the moon plays a negligible role in human life. 

Therefore, the Islamic Lunar Calendar is faulty and deficient, and it was created by the people of the time of ignorance, who didn’t know that the earth completes its circle around the sun in 365 days. 

Since there is no All-Knowing Allah present in the heavens, and Muhammad was himself creating this religion of Islam and Quran, and he himself belonged to that culture of the time of ignorance, that is why Muhammad made this double mistake in Quran:

  1. Firstly, Muhammad chose this faulty and deficient Lunar Calendar, instead of the solar calendar
    (Note: Solar Calendar was already present in the world at the time of Muhammad, but Muhammad didn’t know about it as he lived in the area where people were ignorant of the solar year)
  2. And moreover, Muhammad also made this claim in Quran that these 12 months existed since the beginning of the universe. 

Quran 9:36:
Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. (Translation by Sahih International).
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)- so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein (Translation by Yousuf Ali)

According to modern science, the writer of the Quran is making the following mistakes:

  • First Mistake:
    The writer of the Quran claims that the universe consists of the earth and the skies. But modern science tells us that there exists no such thing as “sky”, and what we see as BLUE colour above, is only due to the reflection of the light of the sun. At night, when the sun disappears, then there is no more blue sky there, but everything is dark, which is space. 
  • Second Mistake:
    Then the writer of the Quran is claiming that the earth and the skies were created at the same time, which is wrong. Modern science tells us that earth was created about 9 billion years after the creation of the universe.
  • Third mistake:
    And then the writer of the Quran is claiming that Allah registered the number of months as 12 since the “beginning” of the universe. How is it possible when there existed no moon and earth, no day and night, no months and year at that time?

What to talk about the lunar year, but even the solar year also has nothing to do with the heavens, as the sun was also not present at the time of the creation of the universe. 

Similarly, look at Verse 79:27-29:

أأنْتُم أَشَدُّ خَلْقاً أَمِ السَّمَآءُ بَناهَا* رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا* وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا* وَالأرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا* أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَآءَها وَمَرْعَاهَا* وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا* مَتَاعاً لَّكُمْ وَلأنْعَامِكُمْ

Is it harder to create you or the heaven? But Allah built it ,and raised its vault high and proportioned it; and covered its night with darkness and brought forth from it its day.

The author of the Quran here is saying that he created the heaven or sky (everything from the atmosphere to outer space) and he is attributing the day and night cycle to this whole heaven or universe, anyone sees how problematic that is?

The author is saying that the whole universe that he built has a day and night cycle, people back then believed that heaven was this blue sky only and that the stars and all celestial bodies are in this blue sky, these verses show an obvious error.

The writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) made a lot of such faulty claims about cosmology. Since it was a time of ignorance, and people were unable to verify such claims, thus Muhammad thought he could make all kinds of stories regarding cosmology, and he will not be caught for those lies. 

But what Muhammad didn’t know is that a time will come, when science will be able to investigate his stories and will catch him red-handed.
And when the writer of the Quran declared 4 months to be sacred in this verse 9:36, then again it is a mistake. Please read our article:

Islamic Lunar Calendar and 4 Sacred Months and following of Pagan Arabs by Muhammad

The start of the “Weekly System” and Islam copying it from earlier cultures

The system of 4 weeks in a month is also a flawed system. A lunar month is equal to 29.53 days and it could not be divided into 4 weeks. 

This system originated in Sumerian culture originally.
The seven-day week originates from the calendar of the Babylonians, which in turn is based on a Sumerian calendar dated to 21st-century B.C. Seven days corresponds to the time it takes for a moon to transition between each phase: full, waning half, new and waxing half. Because the moon cycle is 29.53 days long, the Babylonians would insert one or two days into the final week of each month.

Muhammad then further claimed that the universe was created on different days of the week. 

Sahih Muslim, Book of creation:

Abu Haraira reported that Allah's Messenger took hold of my hands and said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, created the clay on Saturday and He created the mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and He created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and lie caused the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam (peace be upon him) after 'Asr on Friday;the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday, i. e. between afternoon and night.