Here are some potential explanations for this:

  1. Stockholm syndrome:

  2. "Pick me as the alpha female" behaviour: Women may adopt a more religious persona in order to gain social status and approval within their community, particularly from male members. 

  3. "Bargaining with patriarchy": In patriarchal societies, women conform to religious norms and practices as a means of survival. 

  4. Risk aversion: Women are risk averse, not risk takers because of dependence on male members of the family for their livelihood.

  5. Domestic labour: Women are too busy with their domestic labour and don’t have time to stop and reflect.

  6. Keeping Family together: Wommen think religion is a social glue that keeps the family together even if it is at the cost of losing their own personal freedom.

This phenomenon extends beyond Muslim women; it's prevalent in all patriarchal societies, where women tend to be more religious despite facing oppression. Consider ancient India, for instance, where Hindu women lacked rights such as divorce and inheritance and were subjected to practices like Sati, where they had to immolate themselves upon their husbands' deaths. Despite these oppressive conditions, Hindu women exhibited greater religiosity than men.


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