According to Muhammad and the Quran, there is a belief that:

  1. An ocean of sweet water exists above the seven heavens.
  2. This sweet water of rain falls from that ocean above the heavens onto the Earth.
  3. It is the same ocean upon which the throne of Allah rests.
  4. Additionally, there are mountains of snow in the heavens, from which Allah sends hail.

This portrayal aligns with a Flat Earth model, where the seven heavens are envisioned as a canopy above the flat Earth.

It is worth noting that Muhammad seemingly adopted this model of rain and the flat Earth from the Bible, which, in turn, have drawn inspiration from earlier civilizations.

 Table of Contents:

Sweet rainwater comes directly from sweet water ocean in the heavens, upon which Allah's throne is resting

The concept of a sweet water ocean above the heavens was present in Muhammad's understanding, as described in the Quran. Muhammad claimed that two oceans, one with salty water and the other with sweet water, do not mix. 

Quran 25:53

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى مَرَجَ ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ هَٰذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَهَٰذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخًا وَحِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا

And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting partition.

But how is it possible, while there exists no ocean on the earth which has sweet water? 

The explanation for this lies in the cosmological model that Muhammad and earlier civilizations, such as those mentioned in the Bible or Sumerian and Akkadian civilizations, had in mind—a model that included the presence of a sweet water ocean above the heavens.

Various verses in the Quran and Ahadith start aligning perfectly with this cosmological model when we understand the presence of a sweet water ocean in Muhammad's mind. For instance, Muhammad stated that Allah's throne was resting upon the water, a story he borrowed from the Bible. This connection can be seen in the verses from the Quran (11:7) and the corresponding passage from Genesis.

Quran 11:7:

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَكَانَ عَرْشُهُۥ عَلَى ٱلْمَآءِ

And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was upon the water

Muhammad copied this story from Bible.

(Genesis 1:7)  *In the abeginning God created the heaven and the earth ... And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters ... And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were eabove the firmament ... 

... The earth was formless and empty, and darkness covered the deep waters. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters ... Then God said, “Let there be a space between the waters, to separate the waters of the heavens from the waters of the earth.” And that is what happened. God made this space to separate the waters of the earth from the waters of the heavens. Then God said, “Let the waters beneath the sky flow together into one place, so dry ground (i.e. the Earth) may appear.” And that is what happened. 

The writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) continued this fantasy story in the following verse too, where he is claiming that He (i.e. Allah) sent down water from the sky. 

Quran 23:18:

وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۢ بِقَدَرٍ فَأَسْكَنَّٰهُ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ ذَهَابٍۭ بِهِۦ لَقَٰدِرُونَ

(Pickthall) And we send down from the sky water (i.e. rain) in measure, and We give it lodging in the earth, and lo! We are also Able to withdraw this water.

(Maududi) We sent down water from the sky in right measure, and caused it to stay in the earth, and We have the power to cause this water to vanish.

Please reflect upon these words in this verse: "... We can also withdraw/vanish this water" when referring to the water sent down from the sky. 

The problem arises from the fact that during the Flood of Noah, a significant amount of rainwater from this same sweet water ocean above the heavens fell, and it has continued to do so with each rainfall thereafter. Theoretically, this constant rainfall from the heavenly ocean should have flooded the Earth. To avert this, the Quranic writer had to include the notion of withdrawing or vanishing this rainwater to save the Earth from a flood.

The Bible also faces the same question regarding excessive water from the heavens. The rainwater falls directly from the heavenly ocean, leading to inquiries about what happens to the surplus water. The Bible suggests that it stays on Earth, as stated in Isaiah 55:10. 

(Isaiah 55:10): For as the rain and the snow come down (directly) from heaven and do not return there (i.e. back to heaven) but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater.

Please also see 1 Kings 8:35 and 2 Chronicles 7:13.

Moreover, the stories about rainwater during Noah's flood are also similar in both the Bible and the Quran, with references to the opening of gates or windows in the heavens.

Bible, Genesis 7:11:

... the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened (for rain).

Quran 54:11:

فَفَتَحْنَآ أَبْوَٰبَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ بِمَآءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ

Then We opened the gates of the heaven with rain pouring down

However, it is important to note that the understanding presented in the Quran and the Bible regarding the origin and behavior of rainwater is scientifically incorrect. In reality, rainwater does not come from the heavens but is a result of the water cycle, where water on Earth vaporizes, forms clouds, and then precipitates as rain. Water does not disappear or vanish but undergoes changes in form.

The Barrier between the Salty Water of Earth's Ocean and the Sweet Water of Heavens' Ocean

Cosmology in Muhammad's Mind

Upon revisiting the verse that mentions two oceans of salty and sweet water, we can now perceive how it aligns with the cosmological model incorporating a sweet water ocean above the heavens. This perspective allows the verse to find coherence and relevance within this framework.

Quran 25:53:

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى مَرَجَ ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ هَٰذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَهَٰذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخًا وَحِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا

And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting partition.

Under the commentary of this verse, the Sahaba (companions) also referred to the existence of the two oceans—one in heaven and one on earth.

Tafsir al-Qurtabi (Commentary of Verse 25:53):

وقال ابن عباس وابن جبير: يعني بحر السماء وبحر الأرض  قال ابن عباس: يلتقيان في كل عام وبينهما برزخ قضاء من قضائه. { وَحِجْراً مَّحْجُوراً } حراماً محرّماً أن يعذب هذا الملح بالعذب، أو يملح هذا العذب بالملح.

Ibn Abbas and Ibn Jubayr said: It refers to the ocean of the sky and the ocean of the earth. Ibn Abbas further explained: They meet each other every year, and between them is a barrier decreed by Allah. "And a barrier between them is forbidden to be crossed." It is forbidden for the salty water to mix with the sweet water or for the sweet water to become salty.

Ibn Kathir recorded from Rab'i bin Anas, under the commentary of verse 11:7:

وقال الربيع بن أنس : ( وكان عرشه على الماء ) فلما خلق السموات والأرض ، قسم ذلك الماء قسمين ، فجعل نصفا تحت العرش ، وهو البحر المسجور .

And Ar-Rabi' ibn Anas said: "And His Throne was upon the water." So when He created the heavens and the earth, He divided that water into two parts, and He placed one half beneath the Throne, and that is the ocean that is known as "Behr-al-Masjoor".

Quranic verse 52:6 again mentions this "Behr-e-Masjoor" (i.e. water under the Throne of Allah), and Ibn Kathir recorded again from Rab'i bin Anas (link):

قال الربيع بن أنس : هو الماء الذي تحت العرش ، الذي ينزل [ الله ] منه المطر الذي يحيي به الأجساد في قبورها يوم معادها . 

Rab'i bin Anas said: This is the water which is present under the Throne of Allah, from which Allah sends down the (sweet) rainwater. And this same water will be used to make dead people become alive on the day of judgement

Please do remember that Islamic apologists make an excuse that the Quran is mentioning in this verse the meeting of two oceans of the earth. But their excuse is wrong, as there is not a single ocean in this world which has sweet water. 

Thus, Ibn Juraij (an exegete and hadith transmitter from the Taba' at-Tabi'in) became confused and said (link):

 قال ابن جُرَيج: فلـم أجد بحراً عذبـاً إلا الأنهار العذاب

I have not seen any ocean having sweet water. Only rivers have sweet water. 

Islamic apologists also attempt to present a new justification, suggesting that the verse refers to one ocean (of salty water) and one 'river' (of sweet water). However, this excuse lacks validity since the Quran explicitly uses the term "al-bahrain, ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ" meaning 'two oceans.' Therefore, it is not plausible to interpret this term as referring to one ocean and one river.

Furthermore, the inclusion of a sweet water ocean above the heavens in Muhammad's cosmological model provides evidence that Muhammad perceived the Earth to be flat. This concept cannot be reconciled with any spherical Earth model.

The Cloud Model in Muhammad's mind

The writer of the Quran, Muhammad, lacked knowledge about the water cycle. He shared the prevailing understanding of his time, which stated that rainwater originated from the sweet water ocean above the heavens. According to this belief, the "Rain Model" is as under:

  • Rainwater was believed to originate from a sweet water ocean located above the heavens.
  • The rainwater was thought to descend from the seventh sky to the lowest first sky (of our world).

While, according to this belief, the "Cloud Model" is as under:

  • The clouds are situated where the end corners of the 7 heavens meet each other. 
  • Then Allah sends winds that would carry the clouds to the lowest first sky.
  • In the lowest sky, the clouds then absorb the rainwater.
  • Initially, the clouds are present as a unified entity at the place where the 7 skies meet each other.  They stay as this unified entity till they absorb water from the lowest first sky. 
  • Eventually, only after that, Allah would break the clouds into fragments and scatter them.
  • The rain would fall in specific places as determined by Allah's will.

Model of Clouds: Islam vs The Bible

Here are proofs of the Model of Clouds in Islam:

Quran 30:48:

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى يُرْسِلُ ٱلرِّيَٰحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَابًا فَيَبْسُطُهُۥ فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ وَيَجْعَلُهُۥ كِسَفًا فَتَرَى ٱلْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَٰلِهِۦ ۖ فَإِذَآ أَصَابَ بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦٓ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ

Allah (is) the One Who sends the winds, so they raise (the) clouds, then He spreads them in the sky, how He wills, and He makes them fragments so you see the rain coming forth from their midst. Then when He causes it to fall on whom He wills of His slaves, behold! They rejoice.

Suddi said under the commentary of this verse (Link):

عن السدي رضي الله عنه قال: يرسل الله الريح فتأتي بالسحاب من بين الخافقين - طرف السماء حين يلتقيان - فتخرجه ثم تنشره فيبسطه في السماء كيف يشاء،  فيسيل الماء على السحاب، ثم يمطر السحاب بعد ذلك.

Narrated by As-Suddi, may Allah be pleased with him, he said: "Allah sends the wind, and it brings the clouds from between the edges - the meeting point - of the sky (خافين). Then He brings them forth and spreads them in the sky as He wills. The water flows within the clouds, and then the clouds rain afterwards."

And Qatada said under the commentary of this verse (link):

عن قتادة رضي الله عنه في قوله { فيبسطه في السماء } قال: يجمعه ويجعله { كسفا } قال: قطعاً.

Qatada said about the verse { فيبسطه في السماء } that Allah first gathers these clouds at one place, and { كسفا } means he then scatters them in fragments 

From Tabi'un (i.e. 2nd generation of Muslims after Sahaba), we have recorded traditions that rain comes directly from the sweet water ocean, which is above the 7th heaven (upon which the throne of Allah is resting). 

Tafsir Durr-e-Manthur (link):

عن الحسن. أنه سئل المطر من السماء أم من السحاب؟ قال: من السماء، إنما السحاب علم ينزل عليه الماء من السماء.

On the authority of Al-Hasan, he was asked, "Does the rain come from the sky or from the clouds?" He replied, "From the sky. The clouds are a sign that the water will descend upon them from the sky."

عن كعب قال: السحاب غربال المطر، ولولا السحاب حين ينزل الماء من السماء لأفسد ما يقع عليه من الأرض، والبذر ينزل من السماء.

On the authority of Ka'b, he said, "Clouds are the sieves of rain. If it were not for the clouds when the water descends from the sky, it would ruin everything it falls upon on the Earth. And hails (of snow) are also sent down from the sky."

عن خالد بن معدان قال: المطر ماء يخرج من تحت العرش، فينزل من سماء إلى سماء حيث يجمع في السماء الدنيا، فيجتمع في موضع يقال له الايرم، فتجيء السحاب السود، فتدخله فتشربه مثل شرب الاسفنجة، فيسوقها الله حيث يشاء.

On the authority of Khalid ibn Ma'dan, he said, "Rain is water that comes out from beneath the Throne, descending from one sky to another, where it gathers in the lower sky. It then converges in a place known as Al-A'ram. The dark clouds approach and enter it, consuming the water like a sponge. Then Allah drives them wherever He wills."

عن عكرمة قال: ينزل الماء من السماء السابعة

'Ikrama said: Rainwater descends from the 7th heaven.

Since rainwater comes from the 7th heaven in Muhammad's mind (which is closer to the throne of Allah), thus Muhammad declared that rainwater is blessed while it was present near Allah.

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 898:

Anas (b. Malik) reported: It rained upon us as we were with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). The Messenger of Allah (way peace be upon him) removed his cloth (from a part of his body) till the rain fell on it. We said: Messenger of Allah, why did you do this? He said: It is because it (is blessed while it) has just come from the Exalted Lord (i.e. from heavens, where the throne of Allah is).

Furthermore, the claim made by the writer of the Quran that clouds start as one entity and then become fragmented is scientifically incorrect. In reality, when water vapor rises in the atmosphere, it undergoes condensation, forming small, transparent cloud fragments. As more clouds gather in one area, they begin to appear as white-colored clouds. With further concentration of white clouds in the same region, they can develop into dark-colored clouds, from which rainfall eventually occurs. This process demonstrates that clouds start as fragmented entities and can gradually combine to form larger cloud formations before precipitation takes place. (link).

Moreover, it appears that Muhammad also borrowed the "Cloud Model" from the Bible. In Jeremiah 10:13, it is mentioned that God makes clouds rise from the ends of the earth, accompanied by thunder, rain, and wind. 

(Jeremiah 10:13) When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise (towards sky) from the ends of the earth. He sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses


  • According to the bible, clouds are stored at the ends of the earth, whereas according to the Quran, they are stored between the corners of the skies where they meet each other. Thus, according to both of them, clouds are stored at almost the same places that are beyond the reach of people.
  • According to the bible, God sends the wind from his 'storehouses'. In the Quran, Allah also sends winds but didn't specify from where (while perhaps Muhammad had no idea as he didn't know the bible well to copy it from there). 

And Sumerian culture also had the same basic model of cosmology and rain as the Bible and Islam have. 


Exposing the Deception: Misinterpretation of the Word "Sky" (ٱلسَّمَاء) by Islamic Apologists

It is crucial to address the widespread false propaganda propagated by Islamic apologists, who have successfully indoctrinated both Muslims and non-Muslims into believing that the term "sky" (ٱلسَّمَاء) in the Quran can also mean:

  1. Atmosphere
  2. From above
  3. Clouds

For instance, the Quran mentions the descent of rainwater from the heavens in the following verse:

Quran 2:22:

ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ فِرَٰشًا وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً

Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens ٱلسَّمَآ your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens ٱلسَّمَآ.

However, modern Islamic apologists deceitfully claim that the term 'sky' (ٱلسَّمَاءَ) in the Quran can also signify 'atmosphere' or 'from above.' Consequently, they argue that the verse can be interpreted as:

".... and (He) sends down rainwater from the atmosphere (or from above or from clouds)."

Fortunately, the Quranic verse itself provides clarity, leaving no room for the escape of Islamic apologists. The verse utilizes the term 'sky' (ٱلسَّمَاءَ) twice, explicitly conveying that it refers to the heavenly canopy erected by Allah, in contrast to the earthly bed or couch.

It is essential to recognize and refute these deceptions by Islamic apologists, that deviate from the clear meaning conveyed by the Quranic text itself.

Similarly, look at this verse:

Quran 2.164:

إِنَّ فِى خَلْقِ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱخْتِلَٰفِ ٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَٱلْفُلْكِ ٱلَّتِى تَجْرِى فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن مَّآءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَٰحِ وَٱلسَّحَابِ ٱلْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَءَايَٰتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
(If they want a sign for the perception of this Reality) surety there are countless signs for those who use their common sense; they can see alternation of the night and day, in the ships that sail the ocean laden with cargoes beneficial to mankind, and in the rain-water which Allah sends down from the sky and thereby gives life to the earth after its death and spreads over it all kinds of animate creatures, in the blowing of the winds and in the clouds which obediently wait for orders between the sky and the earth.

Hence, this verse not only establishes the distinction between clouds and the sky (ٱلسَّمَاء), but it also explicitly clarifies the location of clouds between the earth and the sky.

It is crucial to acknowledge the gravity of these deceptions propagated by Islamic apologists. Their influence extends far and wide, significantly impacting the beliefs of billions of Muslims who wholeheartedly trust in these misleading interpretations.

The Concept of Thunder and Lightning in Muhammad's mind

The thunder and lightning phenomenon was regarded as a mystery during the time of ignorance, and Muhammad capitalized on this lack of understanding by inventing stories to gain respect and instill fear as someone knowledgeable about the unseen world.

Accordingly, Muhammad fabricated the following narrative:

  • There is an angel named R'ad who oversees the clouds. And the THUNDER that we hear, it is actually the voice of that angel R'ad which comes when he drives the clouds. 
  • Additionally, LIGHTNING occurs when the angel R'ad strikes the clouds with his iron whip. Subsequently, Allah employs the lightning as a means to punish those who defy Him.

Quran 13:13:

وَيُسَبِّحُ ٱلرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِۦ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِۦ وَيُرْسِلُ ٱلصَّوَٰعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَن يَشَآءُ وَهُمْ يُجَٰدِلُونَ فِى ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْمِحَالِ

And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.

Furthermore, Muhammad introduced additional elements to this fictional narrative in the following tradition.

Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Hadith 2479 (link):

Ibn Abbas said: Once some Jews came to Muhammad and they said: "We will ask you five questions, and if you can answer them correctly, then we will accept that you are the true prophet of God, and we will follow you" ... They asked the fourth question: "What is Thundering of clouds?" Muhammad replied: "There is an angel which Allah stipulated for supervising clouds. He has a whip of iron with which he hits the clouds (due to which lightning is produced), and drives them to go wherever Allah had ordered them to go ... and the thunder is the voice of that angel. Upon that the Jews testified Muhammad. 
Grade: This is a Sahih (authentic) Hadith (link). 

During the time of ignorance, people had no means to verify or refute such fabricated stories. Consequently, they began to fear Muhammad as a prophet of God and became more compliant to his teachings.

However, modern scientific knowledge has debunked these unfounded tales. Scientific explanations have provided precise reasoning for natural phenomena such as thunder, lightning, earthquakes, and eclipses, contradicting Muhammad's fictional narratives.

The Model of Hails in Muhammad's Mind

During the time of ignorance, people commonly observed that snow was found in mountains. This led to the belief that there were "mountains of snow" in the heavens, from which hail accompanied rainwater.

In line with this prevailing understanding, the writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) also incorporated this concept from the time of ignorance into the Quranic verses.

Quran 24:43:

وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِنۢ بَرَدٍ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَصْرِفُهُۥ عَن مَّن يَشَآءُ

And He sends down hail from the sky, from mountains within it, and it strikes whomever He wills and diverts it from whomever He wills.

Imam Qurtabi wrote under the commentary of this verse (link):

{ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَدٍ } قيل: خلق الله في السماء جبالاً من بَرَد، فهو ينزِّل منها بَرَداً  وفيه إضمار، أي ينزِّل من جبال البرد بَرَدا، فالمفعول محذوف. ونحو هذا قول الفرّاء لأن التقدير عنده: من جبال برد فالجبال عنده هي البرد. و«بَرَدٍ» في موضع خفض ويجب أن يكون على قوله المعنى: من جبالٍ بردٍ فيها، بتنوين جبال. وقيل: إن الله تعالى خلق في السماء جبالاً فيها برد فيكون التقدير: وينزل من السماء من جبال فيها برد.

And He sends down from the sky hail from mountains within it, containing hailstones. It is said that Allah created mountains of hail in the sky, and He sends down hail from them ...  It is also said that Allah created mountains in the sky containing hail, so the intended meaning is: "And He sends down from the sky from mountains within it containing hail.

Ibn Kathir writes under commentary of this verse 24:43 (link):

(and He sends down from (Min) the sky, from (Min) mountains in it of (Min) ice,). Some of the grammarians said that the first Min describes the place from which it is coming, the second specifies from which part of the sky it comes, and the third means some kind of mountains. This is based on the view of those scholars of Tafsir who say that, مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَدٍ from (Min) mountains in it of (Min) ice, means that there are mountains of hail in the sky from which Allah sends down ice.

Once again, Muhammad copied this concept from the bible.

(Isaiah 55:10): For as the rain and the snow come down (directly) from heaven and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater. 

The Source of sweet water of the Nile and Euphrates in Muhammad's mind

Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 3207:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: .... (On the night of ascension, where he went to heavens) Then I was shown Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (i.e. a tree in the seventh heaven) and I saw its Nabk fruits which resembled the clay jugs of Hajr (i.e. a town in Arabia), and its leaves were like the ears of elephants, and four rivers originated at its root, two of them were apparent and two were hidden. I asked Gabriel about those rivers and he said, 'The two hidden rivers are in Paradise, and the apparent ones are the Nile and the Euphrates.'

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 2839:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: Saihan, Jaihan, Euphrates and Nile are all among the rivers of Paradise.

Now, these Ahadith have become a challenge and a headache for Islamic apologists as they do not align with any cosmological models. They are unable to provide an answer regarding how the water, which is flowing from the root of a tree in paradise, reaches the earth.

Furthermore, modern science has already identified the true sources of the sweet water in the Nile and the Euphrates rivers. 

During the time of Muhammad, people lacked knowledge about the true origins of the sweet water in the Nile and the Euphrates rivers. This provided Muhammad with an opportunity to fabricate falsehoods regarding their sources. However, modern science has exposed Muhammad's deceitful claims regarding these rivers' origins.

Furthermore, this issue is further resolved when we discover a similar story in the Bible, albeit with a slightly different concept.

Genesis 2:10-14: A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon ۔۔۔The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

The difference between the biblical story and Muhammad's account is as follows:

  • In the Bible, the "Garden of Eden" where Adam and Eve resided, along with the forbidden tree, was located on Earth. Therefore, it was logical for the Bible to state that the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers originated from the Garden of Eden.
  • However, Muhammad made an error in his rendition of the story. He claimed that Adam, Eve, and the forbidden tree were situated not on Earth but in paradise in the heavens. This posed a challenge in explaining how the water from the root of a tree in heaven could reach the earthly rivers.

Muhammad, though he borrowed stories from the Bible, was not an educated scholar and remained largely illiterate. Consequently, he inadvertently made numerous human errors while retelling these ancient narratives.

More about the Garden of Eden/Paradise:

Garden of Eden, in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) book of Genesis, biblical earthly paradise inhabited by the first created man and woman, Adam and Eve, prior to their expulsion for disobeying the commands of God...  The term paradise is often used as a synonym for the Garden of Eden before the expulsion of Adam and Eve. An earthly paradise is often conceived of as existing in a time when heaven and earth were very close together or actually touching, and when humans and gods had free and happy association. 

The Concept of the 1st Heaven being 62 miles away from Earth in Muhammad's Mind

According to the Quran, there are a total of seven heavens.

Additionally, the Quran asserts that when devils attempt to eavesdrop on the heavenly assembly of angels in the 1st heaven of Earth, they are met with burning flames or meteors.

However, modern science has demonstrated that meteoroids only ignite once they enter Earth's atmosphere from space. The boundary of space is approximately 62 miles away from our planet.

Therefore, according to the Quran, it suggests that the 1st Heaven is situated approximately 62 miles from Earth.

Quran 72:8-9:

[The Jinns said] We sought to touch the heaven but we found it filled (with) guards severe, and burning flames. And we used to sit therein in positions for hearing, but whoever listens now will find a burning flame (i.e. meteor) lying in wait for him.

Consider this: Are all scientists blind to not observe any tangible heaven (as described in the Quran and Hadith) just 62 miles away? Nor do they witness any angelic assembly, nor the presence of Adam and his descendants. Please refer to the following Hadith for further reflection.

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 163:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ... Gabriel ascended with me to the heaven, and when we came to the lowest heaven (i.e. the heaven of the earth), Gabriel said to the guardian of the lowest heaven: Open. He asked who was there? He replied. It is Gabriel. He again asked who is there with you. He replied: Yes, it is Muhammad with me. He was asked if he had been sent for, He (Gabriel) said: Yes. Then he opened (the gate). When we ascended the lowest heaven (I saw) a man seated with parties on his right side and parties on his left side. When he looked up to his right, he laughed and when he looked to his left, he wept. He said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and the righteous son. I asked Gabriel who he was and he replied: He is Adam (peace be upon him) and these parties on his right and on his left are the souls of his descendants. Those of them on his right are the inmates of Paradise and the parties which are on his left side are the inmates of Hell; so when he looked towards his right side, he laughed, and when he looked towards his left side, he wept

If these scientists are not blind, it serves as evidence that the author of the Quran was simply fabricating falsehoods to deceive the people of that era. The writer assumed that no one would be able to venture into the sky to verify or refute his accounts of shooting stars, granting him the freedom to narrate fairytales in an attempt to captivate and gain followers.

Contradiction in the Quran: Discrepancy in the Distance of the 1st Heaven

In the Quran, there exists a contradiction regarding the proximity of the 1st heaven to Earth. On one hand, the writer claims that shooting stars occur in the 1st heaven, indicating its proximity at 62 miles from Earth. However, the same writer also asserts that all the stars are present under the 1st heaven, adorning it.

Quran 37:6:

Indeed, We (Allah) have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment of stars

This poses a contradiction, as modern science has demonstrated that stars are actually billions of light years away from our planet.

We invite Muslims to reflect upon this contradiction presented in the Quran. Islamic apologists may attempt to provide explanations, but our detailed article, "7 Scientific Blunders in the Single Quranic Story of 'Starsng Stars' ", refutes such excuses.

The false Challenge of Allah that Humans (and Jinns) cannot cross the regions of Heavens and EARTH

In Quran 55:33-35, Allah presents a challenge to both humans and jinns, asserting that they cannot cross the regions of the heavens and earth without His permission. 

Quran 55:33-35:

O company of jinn and mankind, if you are able to pass beyond the regions of the heavens and the earth, then pass. You will not pass except by authority/permission [from Allah] ... There will be sent upon you a flame of fire and smoke, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.

Contrary to Allah's challenge, non-Muslims, atheists, and Hindus, who deny Allah's existence, have already crossed the regions of the Earth without seeking His permission. They have done so without facing any flame of fire or smoke hindering their journey.

The writer of the Quran had the same story in his mind, which is also present in other verses of the Quran i.e. when devils try to sit in the 1st heaven, then stars transform into flames of fire and chase the devils. Thus, in this verse 55:35 too, he is repeating the same threat i.e. if jinns or humans try to pass beyond the regions of heavens and the earth, then Allah will send a flame of fire and smoke upon them. 

However, the writer of the Quran was unaware that this flame of fire is limited to Earth's atmosphere. As a result, in space, there is neither flame nor smoke present.

The concept of the western and the eastern ends of the Flat Earth being extremely HOT in Muhammad's mind

Verse 18:86:

حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ ٱلشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَغْرُبُ فِى عَيْنٍ حَمِئَةٍ

When he (i.e. Dhulqarnain) reached the far west, he found the sun setting, he found it setting in a spring of HOT WATER/dark mud,

Ibn Kathir tells us the reason for the hot water there i.e. it is hot while the western edge of FLAT Earth is CLOSER to the spot where the SUN sets.

Ibn Kathir wrote under the commentary of verse 18:86 (link):

 وقال ابن جرير والصواب أنهما قراءتان مشهورتان، وأيهما قرأ القارىء فهو مصيب، قلت ولا منافاة بين معنييهما إذ قد تكون حارة لمجاورتها وهج الشمس عند غروبها، وملاقاتها الشعاع بلا حائل

Ibn Jarir said, “There are two well-known recitations (i.e.  the sun disappears in black mud, or the sun disappears in the spring of hot water) and whichever one the reciter recites is correct.” And I (i.e. Ibn Kathir) say, there is no contradiction between their two meanings, as it may be the water is hot because it is near the glare of the sun at sunset (i.e. the western edge of the flat earth is closer to sun), and it meets the rays without a barrier. 

Similarly, Quran also tells the story that the far eastern edge of the flat earth is also hot. 

Quran 18:90:

حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَطْلِعَ ٱلشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَطْلُعُ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ لَّمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُم مِّن دُونِهَا سِتْرًا

Until, when he (i.e. Dhulqarnain) came to the rising place of the sun (i.e. the far eastern edge of Flat Earth), he found it rising on a people for whom We (Allah) had provided no shelter against the sun (i.e. no trees etc. while all of them burnt due to the extreme heat).

Ibn Kathir wrote under the commentary of this verse (link):

 وقال قتادة ذكر لنا أنهم بأرض لا تنبت لهم شيئاً، فهم إذا طلعت الشمس، دخلوا في أسراب، حتى إذا زالت الشمس، خرجوا إلى حروثهم ومعايشهم ...  فقال لهم أهلها لا تطلعن عليكم الشمس وأنتم بها، قالوا لا نبرح حتى تطلع الشمس، ما هذه العظام؟ قالوا هذه جيف جيش طلعت عليهم الشمس ههنا فماتوا، قال فذهبوا هاربين في الأرض.
Qatadah said, "It was mentioned to us that they were in a land where nothing grew (due to heat while it is closer to the place of sun rise), so when the sun rose they would go into tunnels until it had passed its zenith, then they would come out to go about their daily lives and earn themselves a living ... And once an army came to them, and they (the locals) said to them: “You should not be here when the sun rises.” But they (didn't listen to the locals and) said, “We will not leave until the sun rises. But what type of bones are these that are lying here?” They (the locals) said, "These are the carcasses of an army (which came here before you). The sun rose on them here, and they died." Upon hearing that, the army went back from there. 
This also proves that Earth was flat in Muhammad's mind. 

Hadith of Sun Rising between the Devil's Horns also proves that the Earth was Flat in Muhammad's mind

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 828b:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: Do not intend to observe prayer at the time of the rising of the sun nor at its setting, for it rises between the horns of Satan. 

According to Muhammad, during sunrise and sunset, he believed that the sun is directly above Satan's head, positioned between his horns. Muhammad further associated non-Muslims' prostration during these times with prostrating to Satan. This assertion can be found in Sahih Muslim, Hadith 832.

Muhammad's understanding of the world was rooted in the belief that it was flat, lacking knowledge about the continuous rising and setting of the sun. From his perspective, it seemed plausible that the sun would travel around Satan once, with everyone observing the same phenomenon.

It is important to note that Muhammad's interpretation reflects his limited understanding at that time, as he was unaware of the scientific reality of the Earth's rotation and the sun's consistent movement.

Lack of Understanding in the Qur'an Regarding Eclipses

The Qur'an does not display any comprehension of eclipses. This may be attributed to the limited exposure Muhammad had to such phenomena, as the hadith accounts suggest he only witnessed a single solar eclipse, which deeply unsettled him and led to an extraordinary display of devotion. Surprisingly, the Qur'an mentions eclipses only once, referring to a lunar eclipse that is predicted to occur at the end of the world. Interestingly, the Qur'an contains a statement that could be perceived as contradictory to the occurrence of eclipses.

Quran 36:40:

It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).

For a solar eclipse to occur, however, the sun and the moon actually must (from the perspective of the earth) "catch up" to each other in their "orbits." But since the moon itself is not visible at that time, the authors of the Qur'an never noticed this.

But then, when discussing the end of time, the Qur'an assumes that a lunar eclipse (which can only occur when the sun and moon are on opposite sides of the earth) can occur at the same time that the sun and moon finally do “catch up” to each other.

Qur'an 75:6-9:

He asketh: “When will be this Day of Resurrection?” But when sight is confounded. And the moon is eclipsed. And sun and moon are united,

The “uniting” of the sun and the moon not only demonstrates a singular instance when they do “catch up” with each other but suggests that its author assumed the common perception that the sun and moon are of comparable size and distance.