According to Muhammad/Quran:

  • There is an ocean of sweet water present above the 7 heavens.
  • And from there the sweet water of rain falls upon the earth.
  • It is the same ocean of water, upon which the throne of Allah is resting.
  • And there are also mountains of snow present in the heavens, from where Allah sends the hail. 

This is actually a Flat Earth model, where the 7 heavens are like a canopy above the flat earth.

Muhammad copied this rain model upon the flat earth from the Bible. 

 Table of Contents:

Presence of Sweet Water OCEAN above the 7 heavens in Muhammad's mind

The writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) claimed two oceans don't mix, although one of them has salty water, while the other has sweet water.

Quran 25:53

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى مَرَجَ ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ هَٰذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَهَٰذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخًا وَحِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا

And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting partition.

But how is it possible, while there exists no ocean on the earth which has sweet water? 

Nevertheless, the explanation is very simple. We only have to understand the rain model, which Muhammad had in his mind (and it is the same cosmological model that the earlier nations like the Bible or Sumerian civilization or Akkadian civilization had i.e. the presence of a sweet water ocean above the heavens). 

All these Quranic verses and Ahadith start fitting into a cosmological model if we only understand the presence of sweet water ocean in the heavens in Muhammad's mind.

First of all, Muhammad claimed that Allah's throne was resting upon the water.

Quran 11:7:

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَكَانَ عَرْشُهُۥ عَلَى ٱلْمَآءِ

And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was upon the water

Muhammad copied this story from Bible.

(Genesis 1:2)  ... The earth was formless and empty, and darkness covered the deep waters. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters ... Then God said, “Let there be a space between the waters, to separate the waters of the heavens from the waters of the earth.” And that is what happened. God made this space to separate the waters of the earth from the waters of the heavens. Then God said, “Let the waters beneath the sky flow together into one place, so dry ground (i.e. the Earth) may appear.” And that is what happened. 

The writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) continued this fantasy story in the following verse too, where he is claiming that He (i.e. Allah) sent down water from the sky. 

Quran 23:18:

وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۢ بِقَدَرٍ فَأَسْكَنَّٰهُ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ ذَهَابٍۭ بِهِۦ لَقَٰدِرُونَ

(Pickthall) And we send down from the sky water (i.e. rain) in measure, and We give it lodging in the earth, and lo! We are Able to withdraw it.

(Maududi) We sent down water from the sky in right measure, and caused it to stay in the earth, and We have the power to cause it to vanish.

Please ponder upon these words in this verse: "... We can withdraw/vanish it".

The problem was, a lot of rainwater from this same sweet water ocean (which is above the 7 heavens) came during the "Flood of Noah", and then it has been constantly coming down during each rainfall afterward. Therefore theoretically, the earth should have been flooded due to this constant rainfall from the ocean in the heavens. That is why, the writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) also had to "withdraw/vanish" this rainwater, to save the earth from the flood. 

It is the same in the Bible too, where the rainwater falls directly from the ocean in the heavens. Therefore, there this same question was also raised what happens with this excessive water? Does it return to the heavens, or does it stay on the earth? The Bible chose the 2nd option (i.e. it stays on the earth). 

(Isaiah 55:10“For as the rain and the snow come down (directly) from heaven and do not return there (i.e. back to heaven) but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater.

Please also see 1 Kings 8:35 and 2 Chronicles 7:13.

And the stories about rainwater coming from the heavens during the flood of Noah, are also the same in both the Bible and the Quran (i.e. The windows/gates of the heavens were opened, from where the rainwater came down).

Bible, Genesis 7:11:

... the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened (for rain).

Quran 54:11:

فَفَتَحْنَآ أَبْوَٰبَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ بِمَآءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ

Then We opened the gates of the heaven with rain pouring down

Contrary to this wrong Quranic/Biblical science:

  • Rainwater does not come from the heavens, but the water on this earth vaporizes and changes into clouds and then it rains. 
  • And this water cannot be withdrawn/vanished, but it only changes its forms.

The barrier between the salty water of the ocean on the earth, and the sweet water of the ocean on the heavens

Cosmology in Muhammad's Mind

Now let us see the verse of two oceans of salty and sweet water once again, and this time this verse starts fitting in the cosmological model due to the presence of sweet water ocean above the heavens. 

Quran 25:53:

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى مَرَجَ ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ هَٰذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَهَٰذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخًا وَحِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا

And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting partition.

The Sahaba (companions) mentioned the same 2 oceans (one in heaven and one on earth) under the commentary of this verse.

Tafsir al-Qurtabi (Commentary of Verse 25:53):

وقال ابن عباس وابن جبير: يعني بحر السماء وبحر الأرض  قال ابن عباس: يلتقيان في كل عام وبينهما برزخ قضاء من قضائه. { وَحِجْراً مَّحْجُوراً } حراماً محرّماً أن يعذب هذا الملح بالعذب، أو يملح هذا العذب بالملح.

Companion Ibn Abbas and Ibn Jubair said: "In this verse, the 2 oceans mean, one ocean (of sweet water) from the heavens and one (salty ocean) from the earth". Companion Ibn Abbas also said: (يلتقيان) means they meet with each other every year, but still there always exists a barrier between them, and thus salty water does not become sweet and vice versa.

Ibn Kathir recorded from Rab'i bin Anas, under verse 11:7:

وقال الربيع بن أنس : ( وكان عرشه على الماء ) فلما خلق السموات والأرض ، قسم ذلك الماء قسمين ، فجعل نصفا تحت العرش ، وهو البحر المسجور .

Rab'i bin Anas said: Regarding the Quranic verse (Allah's throne is on the water), when Allah created the heavens and the earth, then He divided the water into two parts. Half of that water is still under the throne of Allah, and this ocean is known as "Behr-al-Masjoor" (i.e. Ocean of al-Masjoor).

Quranic verse 52:6 again mentions this "Behr-e-Masjoor" (i.e. water under the Throne of Allah), and Ibn Kathir recorded again from Rab'i bin Anas (link):

قال الربيع بن أنس : هو الماء الذي تحت العرش ، الذي ينزل [ الله ] منه المطر الذي يحيي به الأجساد في قبورها يوم معادها . 

Rab'i bin Anas said: This is the water which is present under the Throne of Allah, from which Allah sends down the (sweet) rainwater. And this same water will be used to make dead people become alive on the day of judgement

Please do remember that Islamic apologists make an excuse that the Quran is mentioning in this verse the meeting of two oceans of the earth. But their excuse is wrong, as there is not a single ocean in this world which has sweet water. 

Thus, Ibn Juraij (an exegete and hadith transmitter from the Taba' at-Tabi'in) became confused and said (link):

 قال ابن جُرَيج: فلـم أجد بحراً عذبـاً إلا الأنهار العذاب

I have not seen any ocean having sweet water. Only rivers have sweet water. 

Islamic apologists also try to make a new excuse that this verse is talking about one ocean (of salty water) and one 'river' (of sweet water). Again, this excuse has no value as the Quran used the word ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ, clearly means 'two oceans'. Thus, there is no chance of taking one ocean and one river out of this word ٱلْبَحْرَيْنِ.

Note: The presence of a sweet water ocean above the heavens in the cosmological model in Muhammad's mind is also proof that Muhammad considered the earth to be Flat. It is impossible to fit it in any spherical earth model.

Concept of CLOUDS and Rain Model in Muhammad's mind

The writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) had no idea about the 'water cycle'. He got the same story regarding rainwater, as other people of the time of ignorance had, i.e.:

  • Rainwater comes from the ocean of sweet water above the heavens.
  • And then it descends from the 7th sky to the lowest 1st sky (of our world).
  • Then Allah sends 'winds' which carry the clouds from the edges of the place where 7 heavens meet each other and then winds raise them up to the lowest 1st sky, where clouds suck the rainwater. 
  • In the beginning, these clouds are gathered as one entity, but later Allah breaks them into fragments and scatters them and they rain at the places where Allah wishes them to rain. 

Quran 30:48:

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى يُرْسِلُ ٱلرِّيَٰحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَابًا فَيَبْسُطُهُۥ فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ وَيَجْعَلُهُۥ كِسَفًا فَتَرَى ٱلْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَٰلِهِۦ ۖ فَإِذَآ أَصَابَ بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦٓ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ

Allah (is) the One Who sends the winds, so they raise (the) clouds, then He spreads them in the sky, how He wills, and He makes them fragments so you see the rain coming forth from their midst. Then when He causes it to fall on whom He wills of His slaves, behold! They rejoice.

When the writer of the Quran claims that earlier clouds are gathered like one entity, and later Allah divides them into fragments, then it is a scientific mistake. And the opposite is true i.e. When the water vapors rise in the atmosphere, they convert into clouds due to condensation. Initially, these clouds are in the form of small fragments of transparent clouds. When more and more clouds are gathered in one place, then they first start looking like 'white colored clouds'. And when a lot of white clouds are concentrated in the same place, then they form dark-colored clouds, from which finally the water pours down in the form of rain (link).

After reading these verses of the Quran, the companions & the successors (i.e. the next Muslim generation after companions) were both got misguided too.

Suddi said under the commentary of this verse (Link):

عن السدي رضي الله عنه قال: يرسل الله الريح فتأتي بالسحاب من بين الخافقين - طرف السماء حين يلتقيان - فتخرجه ثم تنشره فيبسطه في السماء كيف يشاء،  فيسيل الماء على السحاب، ثم يمطر السحاب بعد ذلك.

Al-Suddi said: God sends the wind, and it brings the clouds from between the two خافين - i.e. the edges of the skies when they meet - and takes it out, then spreads it, and (Allah) spreads it in the sky as He wills, and the water flows on the clouds (from sky), then the clouds rain after that.

And Qatada said under the commentary of this verse (link):

عن قتادة رضي الله عنه في قوله { فيبسطه في السماء } قال: يجمعه ويجعله { كسفا } قال: قطعاً.

Qatada said about the verse { فيبسطه في السماء } that Allah first gathers these clouds at one place, and { كسفا } means he then scatters them in fragments 

From Tabi'un (i.e. 2nd generation of Muslims after Sahaba), we have recorded traditions that rain comes directly from the sweet water ocean, which is above the 7th heaven (upon which the throne of Allah is resting). 

Tafsir Durr-e-Manthur (link):

عن الحسن. أنه سئل المطر من السماء أم من السحاب؟ قال: من السماء، إنما السحاب علم ينزل عليه الماء من السماء.

It is narrated from al-Hassan: He was asked if rainwater comes from heaven or from clouds? He replied: Rainwater comes from heaven, and clouds are only a sign, and rainwater descends from heaven to clouds. 

عن كعب قال: السحاب غربال المطر، ولولا السحاب حين ينزل الماء من السماء لأفسد ما يقع عليه من الأرض، والبذر ينزل من السماء.

Ka'b said: Clouds are only to stop the water from falling. If there are no clouds, then all the rain water will fall on the same place (where the gates of heaven are opened). While the rainwater descends from heaven. 

عن خالد بن معدان قال: المطر ماء يخرج من تحت العرش، فينزل من سماء إلى سماء حيث يجمع في السماء الدنيا، فيجتمع في موضع يقال له الايرم، فتجيء السحاب السود، فتدخله فتشربه مثل شرب الاسفنجة، فيسوقها الله حيث يشاء.

Khalid bin Ma’dan said: Rain is water that comes out from under the throne, and it descends from one sky to another, where it gathers in the lowest heaven, then gathers in a place called Al-Airam (الايرم), then the black clouds come, they enter in the sky and drink this water like a sponge, and then Allah drives these clouds wherever He wills.

عن عكرمة قال: ينزل الماء من السماء السابعة

'Ikrama said: Rainwater descends from the 7th heaven.

Since rainwater comes from the 7th heaven in Muhammad's mind (which is closer to the throne of Allah), thus Muhammad declared that rainwater is blessed while it was present near Allah.

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 898:

Anas (b. Malik) reported: It rained upon us as we were with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). The Messenger of Allah (way peace be upon him) removed his cloth (from a part of his body) till the rain fell on it. We said: Messenger of Allah, why did you do this? He said: It is because it (is blessed while it) has just come from the Exalted Lord (i.e. from heavens, where the throne of Allah is).

It seems that Muhammad took this fantasy story of clouds too from the bible.

(Jeremiah 10:13) When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise (towards sky) from the ends of the earth. He sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses


  • According to the bible, clouds are stored at the ends of the earth, while according to the Quran, they are stored between the corners of skies where they meet each other. Thus, according to both of them, clouds are stored at places that are beyond the reach of people. 
  • According to the bible, God sends wind from his 'storehouses'. In the Quran, Allah also sends winds but didn't specify from where (while perhaps Muhammad had no idea of it). 

And Sumerian culture also followed almost the same model of cosmology as Muhammad had in his mind. So, Muhammad borrowed the concept of multiple heavens from them. 


Note: The 'rain model' in Islamic cosmology is also proof that Muhammad considered the earth to be flat. 

1st Deception from Islamic apologists: Word SKY (السماء) also means 'atmosphere' or 'from above' 

Special attention is needed, while Islamic apologists have done false propaganda on a mass scale, and they have very successfully brainwashed Muslims and non-Muslims into thinking that the word SKY (السماء) can also mean:

  • Atmosphere
  • From above
  • Clouds

For example, the writer of the Quran also mentioned rainwater comes from the heavens in the following verse:

Quran 2:22:

ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ فِرَٰشًا وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً

Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens

But the modern Islamic apologists today deceive people by claiming that 'sky' (ٱلسَّمَآءَ) in the Quran also means 'atmosphere' or 'from above', and thus, the meaning of the above-mentioned verse is: ".... and (He) send down from atmosphere (or from above) rainwater".

Fortunately, the Quranic verse is itself so much clear that Islamic apologists have no chance to escape, as this verse used the word sky (ٱلسَّمَآءَ) twice and has itself made it clear that from the sky it means 'canopy', which was erected by Allah in comparison to bed/couch like earth. 

2nd Deception from Islamic apologists: Word السماء also means Clouds

Islamic apologists fabricated this claim (i.e. السماء can also mean clouds) on their own and started claiming when Allah tells rain comes from السماء, then it means rain comes from clouds. 

But fortunately, another Quranic verse again refuted their deception. 

Quran 2.164:

إِنَّ فِى خَلْقِ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱخْتِلَٰفِ ٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَٱلْفُلْكِ ٱلَّتِى تَجْرِى فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن مَّآءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَٰحِ وَٱلسَّحَابِ ٱلْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَءَايَٰتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason.

Thus, this verse not only proves that cl totally different thing than السماء (sky), but it also made clear the position of clouds, which is between the earth and the sky. 

Please don't take these deceptions of Islamic apologists lightly, as they have an immense brainwashing effect on all Muslims really believe in these deceptions. 

Concept of Thunder and Lightning in Muhammad's mind

The thunder and lightning of clouds were also a mystery for the people of the time of ignorance, and Muhammad also used this ignorance by fabricating stories in order to get their respect/fears as a man who tells them about the unseen world. 

Thus, Muhammad created this story:

  • R'ad is an angel who supervises the clouds. And the THUNDER that we actually the voice of that angel R'ad which comes when he drives the clouds. 
  • And LIGHTNING is produced when this angel R'ad hits the clouds with his whip, which is made of iron. And then Allah makes the lightning fall upon the people who disobey him.

Quran 13:13:

وَيُسَبِّحُ ٱلرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِۦ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِۦ وَيُرْسِلُ ٱلصَّوَٰعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَن يَشَآءُ وَهُمْ يُجَٰدِلُونَ فِى ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْمِحَالِ

And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.

And then Muhammad further added more material to this fantasy story in the following tradition:

Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Hadith 2479 (People of the time of ignorance couldn't verify or deny the fabricated fantasy stories at that time. Those poor people thus started fearing Muhammad as a prophet of God and became more obedient to him. 

But these fantasy stories of Muhammad were caught as lies by modern science in the present era, and it told the exact reasons for thundering and lightning and earthquakes, eclipse,s etc. 

Concept of Hails in Muhammad's mind

It was a common observation of the people of the time of ignorance that snow is found in the mountains. Thus, they thought that there are also 'mountains of snow' present in the heavens, from where the hail comes along with rainwater. 

Thus, the writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) also stated the same concept of time of ignorance in the Quran too. 

Quran 24:43:

وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِنۢ بَرَدٍ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَصْرِفُهُۥ عَن مَّن يَشَآءُ

He sends down (hails) from the sky, from mountains in it of ice, and strikes there with whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills.

Imam Qurtabi wrote under the commentary of this verse (link):

... and Allah sends down hail from some mountains of snow which are in heavens. And it is not beyond the powers of Allah to make mountains of snow in the sky as he made mountains of stones in the earth.

Ibn Kathir writes under commentary of this verse 24:43 (link):

... وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاء مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَدٍ ...

(and He sends down from (Min) the sky, from (Min) mountains in it of (Min) ice,). Some of the grammarians said that the first Min describes the place from which it is coming, the second specifies from which part of the sky it comes, and the third means some kind of mountains. This is based on the view of those scholars of Tafsir who say that, مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَدٍ from (Min) mountains in it of (Min) ice, means that there are mountains of hail in the sky from which Allah sends down ice.

Once again, Muhammad copied this concept from the bible.

(Isaiah 55:10“For as the rain and the snow come down (directly) from heaven and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater. 

Source of sweet water of the Nile and Euphrates in Muhammad's mind

Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 3207:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: .... (On the night of ascension, where he went to heavens) Then I was shown Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (i.e. a tree in the seventh heaven) and I saw its Nabk fruits which resembled the clay jugs of Hajr (i.e. a town in Arabia), and its leaves were like the ears of elephants, and four rivers originated at its root, two of them were apparent and two were hidden. I asked Gabriel about those rivers and he said, 'The two hidden rivers are in Paradise, and the apparent ones are the Nile and the Euphrates.'

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 2839:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: Saihan, Jaihan, Euphrates and Nile are all among the rivers of Paradise.

Now, these Ahadith became a headache for Islamic apologists, as they fit in none of the cosmological models. They are unable to answer how water, which is coming out of the root of a Tin the paradise, lands on the earth.

But this issue was also solved when we find the same story in the bible too (nevertheless, a little different concept).

Genesis 2:10-14: A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon ۔۔۔The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

The difference between the story of the Bible, and the story of Muhammad is as follows:

  • The 'Garden of Eden' (where God kept Adam and Eve and the forbidden tree) was present on the earth in the story of the bible. Thus, it was not a problem when the bible claimed that the water of Tigris and Ecomesates come from the 'Garden of Eden'.
  • But Muhammad made a mistake while copying the story of the bible, and he claimed that Adam and Eve and the forbidden tree were NOT present on the earth, but in paradise in the heavens. Thus, it became a problem to explain how the water from the root of a tree in heaven, lands in the rivers on the earth. 

Muhammad was copying the stories of the bible, but he was still very much illiterate and not a scholar. Thus, he made a lot of human mistakes while copying those older stories. 

More about the Garden of Eden/Paradise:

Garden of Eden, in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) book of Genesis, biblical earthly paradise inhabited by the first created man and woman, Adam and Eve, prior to their expulsion for disobeying the commands of God...  The term paradise is often used as a synonym for the Garden of Eden before the expulsion of Adam and Eve. An earthly paradise is often conceived of as existing in a time when heaven and earth were very close together or actually touching, and when humans and gods had free and happy association. 

The 1st Heaven of Earth is only 62 miles away from Earth in Muhammad's mind

The Quran claims when devils try to hear the commands of Allah from the assembly of angels, which happens on the 1st heaven of earth, then they are hith the burning flames/meteors

But modern science has proved that meteoroids start burning only when they enter the atmosphere of our earth from space. And space is only 62 miles away from our earth. 

Therefore, it means that the 1st Heaven is only 62 miles away from our earth according to the Quran. 

Quran 72:8-9:

[The Jinns said] We sought to touch the heaven but we found it filled (with) guards severe, and burning flames. And we used to sit therein in positions for hearing, but whoever listens now will find a burning flame (i.e. meteor) lying in wait for him.

Please think about it, are all the scientists blind that they neither see any solid heaven (as Quran and Ahadith claim) 62 miles away, nor do they see the assembly of any angels, nor do they see any Adam laughing and weeping, nor do they see the descendants of Adam there. Please see the following hadith. 

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 163:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ... Gabriel ascended with me to the heaven, and when we came to the lowest heaven (i.e. the heaven of the earth), Gabriel said to the guardian of the lowest heaven: Open. He asked who was there? He replied. It is Gabriel. He again asked who is there with you. He replied: Yes, it is Muhammad with me. He was asked if he had been sent for, He (Gabriel) said: Yes. Then he opened (the gate). When we ascended the lowest heaven (I saw) a man seated with parties on his right side and parties on his left side. When he looked up to his right, he laughed and when he looked to his left, he wept. He said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and the righteous son. I asked Gabriel who he was and he replied: He is Adam (peace be upon him) and these parties on his right and on his left are the souls of his descendants. Those of them on his right are the inmates of Paradise and the parties which are on his left side are the inmates of Hell; so when he looked towards his right side, he laughed, and when he looked towards his left side, he wept

If these scientists are not blind, then it proves that the writer of the Quran was only telling lies to the people of that time of ignorance. He thought no one could go up in the sky to confirm or reject his story about shooting stars, so he was free to narrate fairytales to the torder to impres them, so that they follow him. 

Contradiction in Quran regarding how far away the 1st heaven is

On one hand, the writer of the Quran claimed that incidents of shooting stars happen in the 1st heaven, which makes the 1st heaven to be 62 miles away from earth. 

But on the other hand, the writer of the Quran also claimed that ALL the stars are present under the 1st heaven, and Allah made them beautify this lowest heaven. 

Quran 37:6:

Indeed, We (Allah) have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment of stars

But modern science caught this contradiction of the Quran and proved that these stars are present billions of light years away from our earth. 

We invite Muslims to please ponder upon this Quranic contradiction. 

Note: As normal, Islamic apologists try to come up with lame excuses, but all of them have been refuted in our detailed article: 7 Scientific Blunders in a single Quranic story of 'Starsng Stars' 

The false Challenge of Allah that humans (and Jinns) cannot cross the regions of heavens and EARTH

Quran 55:33-35:

O company of jinn and mankind, if you are able to pass beyond the regions of the heavens and the earth, then pass. You will not pass except by authority/permission [from Allah] ... There will be sent upon you a flame of fire and smoke, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.

The writer of the Quran (i.e. Muhammad) is again presenting the concept of flat earth here.

But against Allah's challenge, the non-Muslims and atheists, and Hindus (who all deny Allah) have already crossed the region of Earth (without permission of Allah) and no flame of fire or smoke was able to stop them from crossing the region of the earth, the writer of the Quran had the same story in his mind, which is also present in other verses of the Quran i.e. When devils try to sit in the 1st heaven, then stars transform into flames of fire and chase the devils.

The writer of the Quran didn't know that this flame of fire is only limited to our earth's atmosphere. Therefore, there is neither any flame of fire nor smoke is present in space.

The concept of the western and the eastern ends of the Flat Earth being extremely HOT in Muhammad's mind

Verse 18:86:

حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ ٱلشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَغْرُبُ فِى عَيْنٍ حَمِئَةٍ

When he (i.e. Dhulqarnain) reached the far west, he found the sun setting, he found it setting in a spring of HOT WATER/dark mud,

Ibn Kathir tells us the reason for the hot water there i.e. it is hot while the western edge of FLAT Earth is CLOSER to the spot where the sun sets.

Ibn Kathir wrote under the commentary of verse 18:86 (link):

 وقال ابن جرير والصواب أنهما قراءتان مشهورتان، وأيهما قرأ القارىء فهو مصيب، قلت ولا منافاة بين معنييهما إذ قد تكون حارة لمجاورتها وهج الشمس عند غروبها، وملاقاتها الشعاع بلا حائل

Ibn Jarir said, “There are two well-known recitations (i.e.  the sun disappears in black mud, or the sun disappears in the spring of hot water) and whichever one the reciter recites is correct.” And I (i.e. Ibn Kathir) say, there is no contradiction between their two meanings, as it may be the water is hot because it is near the glare of the sun at sunset (i.e. the western edge of the flat earth is close to sun), and it meets the rays without a barrier. 

Similarly, Quran also gives the same impression that the far eastern edge of the flat earth is also hot. 

Quran 18:90:

حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَطْلِعَ ٱلشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَطْلُعُ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ لَّمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُم مِّن دُونِهَا سِتْرًا

Until, when he (i.e. Dhulqarnain) came to the rising place of the sun (i.e. the far eastern edge of Flat Earth), he found it rising on a people for whom We (Allah) had provided no shelter against the sun.

Ibn Kathir wrote under the commentary of this verse (link):

 وقال قتادة ذكر لنا أنهم بأرض لا تنبت لهم شيئاً، فهم إذا طلعت الشمس، دخلوا في أسراب، حتى إذا زالت الشمس، خرجوا إلى حروثهم ومعايشهم ...  فقال لهم أهلها لا تطلعن عليكم الشمس وأنتم بها، قالوا لا نبرح حتى تطلع الشمس، ما هذه العظام؟ قالوا هذه جيف جيش طلعت عليهم الشمس ههنا فماتوا، قال فذهبوا هاربين في الأرض.
Qatadah said, "It was mentioned to us that they were in a land where nothing grew (due to heat while it is closer to the place of sun rise), so when the sun rose they would go into tunnels until it had passed its zenith, then they would come out to go about their daily lives and earn themselves a living ... And once an army came to them, and they (the locals) said to them: “You should not be here when the sun rises.” But they (didn't listen to the locals and) said, “We will not leave until the sun rises. But what type of bones are these that are lying here?” They (the locals) said, "These are the carcasses of an army (which came here before you). The sun rose on them here, and they died." Upon hearing that, the army went back from there. 

Hadith of Sun Rising between the Devil's Horns also proves that the Earth was Flat in Muhammad's mind

Sahih Muslim, Hadith 828b:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: Do not intend to observe prayer at the time of the rising of the sun nor at its setting, for it rises between the horns of Satan. 

This is literal. What specifically occurs is that in the morning, when the sun rises, the sun is directly above the head of Satan, sandwiched between Satan’s horns. The same occurs at sunset every day. Muhammad, always looking to denigrate non-Muslims, links non-Muslims’ prostration at such times as prostrating to Satan. (Muslim 832)

Muhammad thinks the world is flat and has no idea that the sun is always simultaneously rising and setting. And so in his eyes, it seems plausible that the sun rises and sets once around Satan and everyone sees the same thing.

But just imagine for a moment what it takes for Muhammad to be correct in our round-earth world. (And let any scientist contribute here.)

  • As a premise, Satan needs to be on Earth. You can’t have Satan in the sky, much less in space, otherwise he could be seen with the sun during Islamic prayer times, in conflict with the Hadith

  • But just Satan by himself won’t work because of everyone’s different position on the meridian. Satan would need a huge army of horned devils that look like him, positioned in one giant vertical circle across the entire planet

  • This army of horned devils would have to travel at 1,000 mph westward, with each devil going slower the closer they are to the Poles—all in perfect sync like a marching band

  • But then devils aren’t supposed to be doing this all day. They’ve got stuff to do. Sit on men’s hair buns. Hang out in people’s noses. Prick babies, etc. So there must be many armies of horned devils working different shifts (twice daily to be consistent with the hadith)

  • And this would have to continue day and night, forever and ever

Or Muhammad could have made it all up.

Solar and lunar eclipses

The Qur'an demonstrates no understanding whatsoever of eclipses. Perhaps this is understandable. The hadith claim that Muhammad only experienced one solar eclipse during his lifetime, an experience which frightened him into a spectacular act of piety. But the Qur'an only makes a single reference to eclipses, and that is a lunar eclipse that will take place at the end of the world. The Quran makes a statement that would conceivably make eclipses impossible.

Quran 36:40:

It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).

For a solar eclipse to occur, however, the sun and the moon actually must (from the perspective of the earth) "catch up" to each other in their "orbits." But since the moon itself is not visible at that time, the authors of the Qur'an never noticed this.

But then, when discussing the end of time, the Qur'an assumes that a lunar eclipse (which can only occur when the sun and moon are on opposite sides of the earth) can occur at the same time that the sun and moon finally do “catch up” to each other.

Qur'an 75:6-9:

He asketh: “When will be this Day of Resurrection?” But when sight is confounded. And the moon is eclipsed. And sun and moon are united,

The “uniting” of the sun and the moon not only demonstrates a singular instance when they do “catch up” with each other but suggests that its author assumed the common perception that the sun and moon are of comparable size and distance.